Diferenças entre edições de "Ambiente Virtual Com Cenários Potencialmente Perigosos Para Trabalhos De Demolição"

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[[Lista de teses MIEC|Tese]] de mestrado integrado de Renato Pereira da Silva, 2021
 
[[Lista de teses MIEC|Tese]] de mestrado integrado de Renato Pereira da Silva, 2021
  
Orientada por [[Alfredo Soeiro]], Co-orientada por [[João Pedro da Silva Poças Martins|João Poças Martins]]
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Orientada por [[Alfredo Augusto Vieira Soeiro|Alfredo Soeiro]], Co-orientada por [[João Pedro da Silva Poças Martins|João Poças Martins]]
  
 
= Resumo =
 
= Resumo =
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= Abstract =
 
= Abstract =
  
Over the last few years, BIM (Building Information Modelling) reinvented the Construction Industry (CI). With its implementation the traditional design workflow changed, and it now relies heavily on three-dimensional modelling of building geometries. Parallelly, the practical applications of 3D printing evolved and diversified, allowing for a wide range of uses in various sectors. Due to the complimentary nature of these concepts and given their current maturity level, the stage is set to study actual practical applications of the combination of these processes.
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Over the years, since the beginning of the sector, construction and all its surroundings, given the
 
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dimensions involved, has been a major concern when it comes to safety around it. Because of that and
In this master dissertation, the main goal consisted in the development of a 3D printing workflow – BIM adaptation tool. For that, all the different 3D printing’s features were studied in detail, as well as the main variations to add in the preparation phase.
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given the number of accident cases that has always been present, it has been, among the years, a major
 
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topic the way we could mitigate and reduce, and through what methods, ending up creating laws,
Keeping in mind the comprehension of the several aspects of 3D Printing, a technology relatively unknown in the CI, this study aimed to get to know about the main features of the available technologies in the market, as well as their workflow. For this reason, the technical specifications of the different techniques developed, and their working principles are explained.
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rules, and many other ways of doing so.
 
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When it comes to building rehabilitation, the dangers, accidents, and preventive measures due to the
To implement an efficient and smart method, several BIM model preparation mechanisms were added, on which can be executed an element verification and analysis and a geometry manipulation. This process not only allows to manage the model, but also to modify and adapt it to the user’s intentions or even to the printer’s limitations. In order to evaluate effectiveness of this mechanisms, two typologically different models are tested, and their results discussed.
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necessary demolition and deconstruction operations must be viewed differently given the specific
 
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characteristics they require. Given that, and as most of the studies and works carried out focus on
The use of 3D printing tools with the contribution of BIM programs can turn out to be very helpful in the future, namely, in complementing BIM experience, prototyping or even in construction.
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safety in construction, this work focuses on safety in relation to methods, preventive measures and
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accidents occurring in demolition environments.
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Throughout this work, the most used methods and equipment for the demolition purpose are reviewed,
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as well as what should be considered in their work, hazards, and some preventive measures regarding
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some cases of demolition in different structural elements, which cause the greatest number of fatal
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accidents.
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With technological development and considering that many of these accidents are fatal, it is more
 +
possible every day that there will be a preparation of all the involved people through tools that
 +
simulate a construction site. A study is made of some of these BIM tools used to model construction
 +
works – and their effects on the accident prevention measures sector.
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Aiming to understand what could be done, some technologies, already developed previously, of virtual
 +
reality and augmented reality, both in support of construction and safety in construction, with various
 +
components of knowledge acquisition, risk identification or evaluation in training, were analysed.
 +
In order to simulate that environment, through BIM and the Unity 3D and SketchUp software, it was
 +
intended to create a virtual model with an environment close to reality with dangerous situations.  
  
 
== Keywords ==
 
== Keywords ==

Edição atual desde as 10h29min de 29 de março de 2021

Texto Integral PDF

Tese de mestrado integrado de Renato Pereira da Silva, 2021

Orientada por Alfredo Soeiro, Co-orientada por João Poças Martins

Resumo

Ao longo dos anos, desde o início do setor, a construção e toda a sua envolvente, dadas as dimensões envolvidas, tem tido como uma grande preocupação a segurança nos seus trabalhos. Por isso, e dado o número de casos de acidentes que sempre esteve presente, tem sido ao longo dos anos um tema de relevo o modo como se poderiam amenizar e diminuir esse número e através de que métodos, nascendo, desta forma, legislações, regras, leis e muitos outros modos de o fazer. A maior parte dos estudos e trabalhos realizados, até à data, focam-se na segurança na construção. Tendo em conta que, no que toca à reabilitação de construções, os perigos, acidentes e medidas preventivas devido às operações de demolição e desconstrução necessárias, devem ser encarados de maneira diferente (dadas as características específicas que estas requerem), este trabalho foca-se na segurança em relação aos métodos, medidas preventivas e acidentes ocorridos em ambientes de demolição. Ao longo deste trabalho, são revistos os métodos e equipamentos mais utilizados em trabalhos de demolição. É também analisado o que se deve ter em conta nos seus trabalhos como um todo, perigos e algumas medidas preventivas no que toca a alguns casos de demolição em diferentes elementos estruturais, causadores da maior taxa de acidentes fatais. Com o desenvolvimento tecnológico e tendo em conta que muitos desses acidentes são fatais, é cada vez mais possível que haja uma preparação de todos os intervenientes através de ferramentas que projetem a obra. É feito um estudo de algumas dessas ferramentas BIM - utilizadas para modelar obras de construção - e os seus efeitos na área da prevenção de acidentes. Analisaram-se, também, algumas tecnologias já elaboradas previamente, de realidade virtual e realidade aumentada, tanto no apoio à construção como no apoio à segurança em construção, com várias componentes de aquisição de conhecimentos, identificação de riscos ou avaliação para formação. De forma a simular um ambiente virtual com alguns cenários potencialmente perigosos para trabalhos de demolição, através do BIM, de programação e dos softwares Revit, Unity 3D e SketchUp, pretendeu-se criar um cenário virtual com ambiente próximo à realidade e situações de perigo elevado.

Palavras Chave

BIM, Realidade Virtual, Unity 3D, Segurança em Obra, Segurança em Demolição

Abstract

Over the years, since the beginning of the sector, construction and all its surroundings, given the dimensions involved, has been a major concern when it comes to safety around it. Because of that and given the number of accident cases that has always been present, it has been, among the years, a major topic the way we could mitigate and reduce, and through what methods, ending up creating laws, rules, and many other ways of doing so. When it comes to building rehabilitation, the dangers, accidents, and preventive measures due to the necessary demolition and deconstruction operations must be viewed differently given the specific characteristics they require. Given that, and as most of the studies and works carried out focus on safety in construction, this work focuses on safety in relation to methods, preventive measures and accidents occurring in demolition environments. Throughout this work, the most used methods and equipment for the demolition purpose are reviewed, as well as what should be considered in their work, hazards, and some preventive measures regarding some cases of demolition in different structural elements, which cause the greatest number of fatal accidents. With technological development and considering that many of these accidents are fatal, it is more possible every day that there will be a preparation of all the involved people through tools that simulate a construction site. A study is made of some of these BIM tools used to model construction works – and their effects on the accident prevention measures sector. Aiming to understand what could be done, some technologies, already developed previously, of virtual reality and augmented reality, both in support of construction and safety in construction, with various components of knowledge acquisition, risk identification or evaluation in training, were analysed. In order to simulate that environment, through BIM and the Unity 3D and SketchUp software, it was intended to create a virtual model with an environment close to reality with dangerous situations.

Keywords

BIM, Virtual Reality, Unity 3D, Construction Safety, Demolition Safety